Me And My Manipuri Things

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Gokulananda Gitiswami is a name deeply cherished by the Bishnupriya Manipuri people. There are practically few persons in the community who may not know his name. A versatile genius as well he was, he was a dramatist, a poet, a wandering minstrel and above all a social reformer. His life bears testimony to all these high qualities of head and heart which can be found only in few gifted persons.


Gokulananda was born on 26th November, 1886, at the Village of Madhabpur of Bhanugach ( in that time Bhanubil pargana) of Bangladesh. Gokuladanda could not prosecute his studies much, he could study only upto 8th standard because of some adverse circumstances, but his burning desire of acquiring knowledge remained with him which later on encouraged him to set up a school. He came over India later on and settled at Ratacherra village of Tripura. Here in 1925 he established a primary school by his own efforts to spread modern education among Bishnupriya Manipuris.

Unfortunately for us not much of his works are available. His compositions which survive today are remembered by the people from his popular refrains. Only a few years back Dr. K. P. Sinha and Haridas Sinha collected a few specimen of his writings. But the few lines which still survive, speak volumes about this great man who composed them

As stated earlier his was a multifaceted personality. A farsighted person as he was he could understand that the backwardness of the people of his community was due to lack of modern education. He, therefore, exhorted the Bishnupriya Manipuris to keep pace with the demands of time. A very conservative people as Bishnupriya Manipuris were at that time, most of the people did not go for modern education for fear of losing the purity of caste. To this was added the absence of schools which were in places few and far between. What the majority of Bishnupriya Manipuri boys studied at that time was Sanskrit grammar and poetics in the Tols (Sanskrit School) of that time. In fact there were quite a few learned Sanskrit scholars like Dhonai Pandit, Jagadananda Pandit, etc., to name just a few. Some boys went for learning the art of playing Mridangam, some for learning the art of Dohar dance and some for singing from their respective Gurus. In fact when I was a boy of 7/8 years some fifty years back my grandfather told me that one renowned Brahmin of his time, by seeing that in modern schools boys from all communities sit together and learn their lessons together expressed his apprehension that in future Bishnupriya Manipuris will not be able to preserve the purity of their caste if they study in such schools. Such was the state of affairs. Late Gokulananda was one of the few wise men who could foresee that without modern education there will be no progress of this community. He, therefore, sang –

Ruhi britti moutup karia dharia thaile nakortoi.

Satya Tretar ruhi hanou Kali Yuge nacholtoi.

Kale Kale Kalar Katha na-hunani nakarer

Jwigoi banhan puria anle kachai majai natharer.

Translation: “it will not serve any purpose if one clings to age old customs. The customs of Satya Yug and Treta Yug will not hold good in Kali Yug.”

One should not turn a deaf ear to the demands of time, because when fire starts burning the forests, it burns both dry and green timber at the same time.”

Gokulananda was a songstar i.e. Kirtania. In fact he earned his name and fame as a Kirtania. Hence, he was popularly known as Gokul Kirtanee also. But what made him tremendously popular among Bishnupriya Manipuri masses was that his songs in Bishnupriya Manipuri language in place of traditional Brajabuli had tenderness and mass appeal in them. Before him there were some persons like Leikhom Sena Sinha who tried to sing in Bishnupriya Manipuri language, but they did not gain that popularity. For the first time Gokulananda showed that tender emotions can be very well expressed in Bishnupriya Manipuri language as well.
This will be evident from the following lines of one of his “Basak Kirtan” —

Ar asha neyoil mungbara ngaloil

Singarei paril shataya

Translation: ‘There is no more hope, for the eastern sky is becoming bright and the bloomed singarei, i.e. Shefali flowers fall on the ground at day break’

The background of the lines is the following – When Srimati Radha was eagerly waiting for her beloved Sri Krishna by making a flower bed in a grove and when Sri Krishna did not turn up, in deep sorrow she said the above lines.

Gokulananda had set the tune of the song in such a way that when a person hears this song he will be deeply moved by the pathetic appeal of the song. He also composed many other songs for his dramas. He utilised his talents in propagating his ideas to Bishnupriya Manipuri masses. From young boys to the old, people used to gather enmasse to hear him. How much Gokulananda could influence the people has been well described by our renowned poet Madan Mohan Mukherjee. The effect of hearing Gokulananda is written by him in a poem as under:

Ak din para lengkora tor eta hunat giya

Kon herede mor punninghan torang katkoria

Khalkoruri torang jemon kita akta diya

Ailu ghore akkhutago onthokpahan oya.

Translation: “One day after going to hear the songs composed and sung by you, somehow I gave away my heart to you… I am thinking as if after giving something to you I came back alone somewhat bewildered.”

Because of all these qualities of a very high order, grateful people conferred on him the title “Geetiswami” along with a silver medallion, in a special session of Nikhil E3ishnupriya Manipuri Mahasabha, in 1935, which was done by none other than another great personality of the time namely Late Mahendra Kr. Sinha. From that time onwards he came to be known as “Geetiswami” also, which became very popular later on.

Late Geetiswami was an accomplished poet also. Apart from writing songs for his dramas, he used to write poetry also. One of his well known poem is “Matribandana” i.e. “Homage to mother”. The first two lines run as under:–

Ima, Ima tor mohima

Kita mattu sougo me.”

… … …

Imar sneha sindhu khudra eka bindu

Hujanir kaje bulia,

Deshe Deshe giya Imar gungan geya

Pagalgor Sade buluri.”

Translation: ” Oh mother, Oh mother, what can I say about your glories, I am but a child… to repay one small drop of mother’s ocean of love, I am wandering like wildman from place to place by singing mother’s glories.” So deep was his respect for his mother which has transcended from individual to universal appeal.

Late Gokulananda was like Bengal’s Charan Kabi Mukunda Das, a minstrel par excellence. He used to sing urging Bishnupriya Manipuri people to love their mother tongue and urged them to wake up from their slumber and face realities of life. He severely chastised the people for their self ego, while others derided at them. In pain he wrote –

“Nijor ghore nije raja

Miange dadi bulani”

Translation: you consider yourself to be a big person in your own residence, while other’s address you as dadi.” (Dadi” is a derogatory word used to address a Manipuri person)

He, therefore, exhorted the Bishnupriya Manipuri people to shake of their deep slumber and awake. He said —

“Ojnan adhararma ghumatai koti

Utha aji habihan jwaleya chei jnanor bati’.

Translation: How long, will you sleep in the darkness of ignorance. All of you must awake to-day. Look ahead after lighting the lamp of knowledge.’

Another salient point in his exhortations was that it was above communal bickering. He was traveling all around by singing such type of songs which infused social and linguistic awareness in the minds of Bishnurpriya Manipuri people.

Late Geetiswami was also a social reformer. He worked for the emancipation of women. He urged the Bishnupriya Manipuri women to walk with dignity. He severly criticised those who did not dress up properly. At that time Bishnupriya Manipuri women used to go to weekly markets to sell their home made products. Sometimes they were insulted by others, which hurt his feelings very much. He urged them to stop going to market. A seasoned campaigner as he was, he was greatly successful in preventing the womenfolk from going to market. But he had deep respect for women. He was pained by the way the women were treated at that time. He wrote —

“Jela eta ki bostukhan

har napeitarata,

Deshe Pandit neita?”

Translation: “People do not know how worthy women are. Are there no learned man in this land?”

At the same time he exhorted woman to realise their inner streangth. He, therefore, said

“Yuge Yuge cheita jelai jingechhita

Shaktite Bhabani, Bidyay Binapani,

Dhairyate Dharani, Bhaktite Braja Gopini,

Outar ongsha kala oya pahurlai nijor shakti.”

Translation: Oh mother, Oh mother, what can I say about your glories, I am but a child.In Yuga after Yuga women excelled. In strength it was Bhabani (Durga), in learning it was Binapani, in fortitude it was Mother Earth and in devotion the Gopikas of Brij. Being- part and parcel of them how you have forgeften your own strength?

One would not say such words unless he had deep regards for womankind. His was not always a path of roses. Revolutionary as his ideas were to the people of that time, he was more often than not misunderstood by the very people for whom he toiled. In anguish he wrote –

‘Kar kaje kadurita

Akgoyou har napeila,

Hobar kaje mattegate

Arak ahan ningkoila”.

Translation: “For whom am I crying? None tried to understood. What I said was for the good of them but they thought it to be otherwise.”

Later in his life Gokulananda joined the then undivided communist party of India in 1950 and he worked as an elected representative in the then Territorial Council of Tripura for a few years. In that capacity he served the local people.

This versatile great son of mother Bishnupriya Manipuri passed away on 10th July, 1962. His death spelt a pall of gloom in the minds of Bishnupriya Manipuri people. They were shocked to hear the news of his demise. The state of mind of the people is well expressed by one Krishnadas in a poem, few lines of which run as under –

‘Nirananda habihan

Amar samajhan

Gokulananda bihane Bishnupriya habi

Sharddhanjali nibedan

Kartara abedan

Gokulhin Samaj jatar ratiye.

Translation: All are grief stricken The whole of our society All Bishnupriya Manipuri in absence of Gokulananda. Offering their homage, Offering their prayers, Gokulless society is being engulfed by darkness of night.

Glowing tribute was paid by poet Bimal Kumar Sinha about his service to the society in the following lines –

“He girok Geetiswami tore homa diyar,

Tor deki manu ami napeitangai ar,

Buile ti gang ghorede ghum bhagil pou boya,

Chikkorle ghum bhagura manur alaya bouhan malaya,

Neyochhila age neyoitai pichhe sade manu tor,

Napeitoi Ima Bishnupriyai eshade seba jiputor.”

Translation: “Oh great Geetiswami! we bow to you, we will no more get a person like you
amongst us. You wandered from village to village by taking with you the message of awakening, you cooled the just awakened people by becoming the gentle breeze from the Malaya Mountain. There was none before, there will be none after like you. Mother Bishnupriya Manipuri will not get such a son’s service hereafter.”

Such were the feelings of the people at the time of death of Gokulananda Geetiswami. Bishnupriya Manipuri people have not forgotten the services rendered by him to the society. They observe his birth and death anniversaries through different organizations with the solemnity they deserve.

It is difficult to express in words the great service which Gokulananda Geetiswami rendered to the Bishnupriya Manipuri society. The development of Bishnupriya Manipuri language and literature owe a great deal to this great person. He is not only the founder of Bishnupriya Manipuri Identity – he proved himself to be our never-failing father, philosopher and guide.

1. Fagu — 2nd year, 10th issue, October 1962.
2. Geetiswamir Ela — Edited by – Dr. K. P. Sinha, M.A., Pli. D.
3. Dils Lakshmindra Sinha — Mengsel, Oct.-Dec., 1992.
4. Nuwa Ela — 14th year, 6th issue, May-June, 1996.
5. Padya Kuru — By Bimal Kr. Sinha.

Contributed by Chandra Kanta Singha



The Kang festival of Bishnupriya Manipuris is a festival of nine-day duration in the bright fortnight in the month of Ashar (June-July) with elaborate paraphernalia. It is observed with great festivity and celebration. On the first day and the last day of Kang festival, Chariot-Procession with the idol of Lord Jagannatha is led out.In Manipur the Kang festival was introduced by Maharaj Gambhir Singh on 1832 AD. He founded the images of Jagavandhu, Balarama and Subhadra and commenced worship on the model of Puri. It should be mentioned that in the village Leishangs image of Lord Jagavandhu is worshippedwith proper rites.

The images are bathed on the day of Snana-Yatra, before fifteen days of Kang. The images are carried out on the Kang ( A wooden chariot specially made for Lord Jagannath) to the accompaniment of music, offerings of fruits by individual house-holders. Sometimes persons stand behind the image and fan it with the Chamora. The structure of the Kang is squire, it has four huge wheels, its head takes the shape of Burmese pagoda and there are two or more long ropes so that the divotees can pull the chariot.

The songs sung during the pulling of Kang in praise Lord Jagannath are both devotional and humorous in nature. One of the songs goes like this–

Akhi paka Jagannath ( Lord Jagananth with giant eyes)
Att tuppa Jagannth ( Lord Jagananth with no hands)
Theiping Chora Jagannath (Lord Jagananth who steals jack fruits)
Chehem Chora Jagannath (Lord Jagananth who steals pineapples)
Heinou Chora Jagannath (Lord Jagananth who steals mangoes)

It is said that Lord Jagannath doesn’t mind if the divotees make fun of his physical appearance. Reciting the physical appearance is not regarded as an offence where its sole aim is the complete devotion toward the lord, rather it improved the literary value of the devotional songs. It should be mentioned that the soul of Bishnupriya Manipuri Vaishnavite culture is ‘Bhagabat Lilagiti’s or ‘Radha-Krshna Lilagiti’s. From Birth to death it is our mandatory tradition to observe the rituals through ‘Bhagabat Lilagiti’s along with ‘Nrityabadhya’s. To Manipuris, praising the lord with his quality by singing is more devotional than merely chanting his name.

Every evening during the periods of nine-days of Kang festival, devotional songs are sung, particularly those from the great Vaishnavite literature Gitagovinda of Jayadeva, who is considered to be the most eminent ‘Vaisnnav Padakarta’ of Bengal. The songs are sung along with clapping and dancing, by the people in the Mandav’s or shed for religious and cultural performances. After the singing of devotional songs, feasts of ‘Khichuri’s (a kind of dish made of rice and split pulses) offered everyday by the people in turns, are distributed among the folks.

Kang is an important event in the socio-religious-cultural life of Bishnupriya Manipuris. There is a traditional game called Kang, also related with this Kang festivals. From the early modern and modern literatures of Bishnupriya Manipuri we can find the cultural significance of Kang festival. That’s why renowned Bishnupriya Manipuri poet Sri Madan Mohan Mukharjee writes –

Khalparor kang

Jitegate Akta oya

Aloyte thang thang

Kngaor dine horou oya

lengka marup khomkoriya

Akta oya sajel koriya

Khalparor kang

Tiloilaha, tiloilaha

habbi hato gang


Jobor haroupar yarihan,amar gang e emtaga sou sumarar kaje matribhasat (bisnhnupriya manipuri thar) sikkha nenar bebostha ahan oil.Gangor uthsahi gaurapa kotogoi madhabpuror dekhadekhi school ego chalu korla.Karigori sohojugita ditara SIL BANGLADESH.

Udbudhoni onusthan ohat youonir souvagya isil morta.Sil etto dugo ahisila.Leirik uta chang subidha naileu nuwa jinis ahan dekluta je leirik uta habi ikorousita amar manure diya.

Prodhan otithigor sombhason

imar tharor byapok chorcha baro bikoshor ka esade uddug habirang thakat peitoi.Summer Institute of Lingusitic Bangladesh (SIL) bultara songstha ohar arthik baro karigori panglake e schoolgor shukkhadan karjyakrom oudinetto okorla. 2 March 2007 tarike iya gelga onusthan uhanat prodhan otithir asonhan gnalkorisili SIL Bangladeshor prosasonik kormokorta Sri Sarah Selin baro besesh otithigo oya ahisil Sri Manna Mondol. Onusthane artau nanan pesar manu tilosila. Lomanir patape baro Sri Suniti Sinhai ela hunuilo. Thangnat Schoolgor sou otai ela, nacha, abriti poribeson koriya habire harou korla. SIL or lerik uta cheilu,changuhan jut nase. yari / kobita uta kacha baro oporisilito mone il.

Epei arak dukhho ahante thyle, sou sumarar upojugi kioriya sahitya likhanir moto protibha amarta akgou kita asita?

Madoi Soralelor Ela’
s (Madoi Soralel Songs, মাদই সরাহালর এলা) are the ancient folk songs composed in Medieval Bishnupriya Manipuri Language, in between the period 1650 A.D. -1700 A.D. These are one of the most renowned ancient folk song in Bishnupriya Manipuri, which has been handed down through oral tradition. This song was composed during the last part of Chorai Rongba’s reign, i.e., during the first part of the eighteenth century, when the Vaishnavism of Sri Caitanya entered into the society, as a result of which a cultural conflict arose therein.

This song has a clear reference to drinking and eating of meat – custom which goes back to a period anterior to the conversion of these people to the school of Lord Sri Chaitanya. This song, therefore, points to a period when Vaishnavism or Sri Chaitanya or any other sect of Vaishnavism had not struck its roots into the hearts of the people.


Madoi gidei saloili, boksabadiya saloili,
koiou durei oilita
tengara sinchat laloili, babaro matiou na deklo,
kotou durei oilita
pampol tingdiya kadiri, ima bulia dahiri,
kotou durei oilita

English Rendering:

(Madai, a maiden of the Alakga family has been given in marriage to Saralel, the king of the gods.) She starts for Soralel’s place. She stretches her hands, cries loudly, crosses over hills and dales and goes far away. (Thus, she goes above in heaven.)


Hunorta raja hunorta, hunorta raja hunorta
babro gorgo pureko, jeikga raja jeikga
najeiga madoi najeiga, tor babaro gorgo napurer
jeinga raja jeinga, hunarkeirak lama diyade
babaro gorgo purerko, jeinga raja jeinga
najeiga madoi najeiga, tor babro gorenajeiga
tor babro gore gelega huror pohu kheiteiga
huror pohu kheiteiga, modro sorap piteiga
modro sorap napitou, huror pohu naheitoi
hunar keirak lamade, jeingaraja jeinga
korifaba kheya jaga, hunarkeirak amadilu
tor bar gore gelega digali pirak naboheiga
modro sorap napisga, huror pohu naheisga

English Rendering:

(One day, Madai hears a loud noise coming from below and, looking downwards, finds that a mass of smoke is rising from her father’s house.) She tells the king that her father’s house is in flames and requests him to allow her to go to her father’s house. Saralel first tells her that her father’s house is not on fire. When Madai expresses her strong desire to go, he says that he, apprehends she may take meat and wine if she goes to her father’s house.
Madai promises that she will not take meat and wine there. Then Saralel proposes that Madai should keep Kari Phaba, her son, with him and go to her father’s house alone. Madai accepts the proposal. Saralel warns her not to sit on long couches. He then stretches downwards a golden ladder.


Madoi gidei keirak lamaniye
dakou kurung bareitara, belao kekruk rhoeitara
madoi gidei keirak lamaniye
ningolo jethi ahili, digali piranikalei
naboitou baba naboitou, digali pirat naboitou
rajaro mana napeilu, naboitou baba naboitou
ningolo jethi ahili, modlo sorap nikalei
modro sorap nikalei, huror pohu radhedei
huror pohu neheitou, modro sorap napitou
modro sorap napitou, digali pirat naboitou

English Rendering:

Madoi descends along the golden ladder. All look at her joyfully. When she comes, her father orders the family-members to offer a long couch to her. Midai declines to take her seat on the couch. Then, the father ,orders them to offer her drink and meat, of boar cooked. Madai declines to take wine and meat of boar.


Nadektoi ima nadektoi, tambul hathan tangtou e
mohori hathan khalkoro, homaga madoi piga
lomoilu baba lomoilu, lomoilu baba lomoilu
rajaro keirak tulloko, lomoilu baba lomoilu
na kadi karifaba, leipak thipi kariphaba
madoi gidei khamna laloiliye

English Rendering:

Then, the father proposes to offer her wine at a place ,covered by seven mosquito-nets, so that Saralel does not see her taking wine. (Madai accepts the proposal. When she is just going to take a sip of wine, Saralel spits from above, and the spit, passing through the seven mosquito-nets, falls upon the wine-pot. Madai understands the matter.) Looking behind, Madai finds that Saralel is lifting the golden ladder. She is greatly shocked, cries loudly, consoles Kari Phaba from below and passes over hills and dales.



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