Me And My Manipuri Things

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Bishnupriya Manipuri (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) plugin for MultiLing Keyboard.
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। নিউইয়র্কে অনুষ্ঠিত বিপন্ন ভাষামেলার আলোচনা সেশনে বাংলাদেশের প্রান্তিক জনপদের একটি ভাষা স্হান পেয়েছে। ভাষাটির নাম বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি। পৃথিবীর বিপন্ন ভাষাগুলোকে রক্ষার গুরুত্ব তুলে ধরে নিউইয়র্কে পালিত হয়েছে বিপন্ন ভাষামেলা। বিপন্ন ও বিলুপ্তপ্রায় ভাষাগুলোকে নিয়ে কাজ করা এনডেঞ্জারড ল্যাঙ্গুয়েজ এলায়েন্স (ELA) গত ২৯ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০১২ তারিখে নিউইয়র্ক পাবলিক লাইব্রেরীতে এই ভাষামেলার আয়োজন করে। বিপুল সংখ্যক আগ্রহী দর্শক, ভাষাকর্মী ও ভাষাতাত্বিকের উপস্হিতিতে ভাষামেলায় পৃথিবীর বিভিন্ন প্রান্ত থেকে আসা বিপন্ন ভাষাসমুহের প্রতিনিধিরা তাদের ভাষার পক্ষে বক্তব্য তুলে ধরেন। বাংলাদেশ থেকে বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষার প্রতিনিধিত্ব করেন উত্তম সিংহ। অনলাইনভিত্তিক ফেসবুক গ্রুপ বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ডিসকাশন ফোরাম (BMDF) এবং পৌরি ইন্টারন্যাশনাল এর সক্রিয় তৎপরতায় ভাষামেলায় বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষাকে অন্তর্ভূক্ত করা হয়। উল্লেখ্য বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষাকে ইতিমধ্যে UNESCO এনডেঞ্জারড ল্যাঙ্গুয়েজ ক্যাটাগরিতে তালিকাভুক্ত করেছে।

উত্তম সিংহ তার বক্তব্যে বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষার বৈশিষ্ঠ্য এবং অপরাপর ভাষাসমুহের সাথে এই ভাষার তুলনামুলক চিত্র তুলে ধরেন। তিনি তার বক্তব্যে বলেন ভাষভিত্তিক এথনোলোগ থেকে প্রাপ্ত তথ্য অনুসারে বাংলাদেশে প্রায় ৪০,০০০ ভাষিক সংখ্যালঘু বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষায় কথা বলেন। এছাড়া ভারতের আসাম ত্রিপুরা ও মণিপুরে ৩৬০,০০০ বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি বাস করে। ব্যবহারিক চর্চার অভাব, আঞ্চলিক বৃহৎ ভাষাসমুহের প্রভাব, রাস্ট্রিয় উদাসীনতা ইত্যাদি নানান কারণে ভাষাটির অস্তিত্ব হুমকির মুখে পড়েছে। তবে গত কয়েক দশকে এই ভাষায় উল্লেখযোগ্য পরিমাণ সাহিত্যকর্ম রচিত হয়েছে, প্রকাশিত হয়েছে শতাধিক পত্রপত্রিকা। এছাড়া অনলাইনে নানান ব্লগ, ওয়েবসাইট ও সামাজিক যোগাযোগ মাধ্যমে ভাষাটির চর্চা গড়ে উঠছে। বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষার একটি অনলাইন উইকিপিডিয়াও রয়েছে। দীর্ঘ আন্দোলনের পর আসাম ও ত্রিপুরায় শিক্ষার প্রাথমিক স্তরে বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষা চালু হয়েছে। বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষার দুইটি উপভাষা (মাদইগাঙ ও রাজারগাঙ) বিষয়ে সংক্ষিপ্ত আলোচনায় উত্তম সিংহ বলেন মাদইগাঙ উপভাষায় তিব্বত-বর্মী শাখার মণিপুরি মৈতৈ ভাষার প্রভাব এবং রাজারগাঙ উপভাষায় ভারতীয়-আর্য ভাষাসমুহের প্রভাব লক্ষ্যনীয়। বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরিদের সংস্কৃতি চর্চার বিষয়েও তিনি আলোকপাত করেন। মণিপুরি সংস্কৃতি ও মণিপুরি নৃত্যকে জনপ্রিয় করতে নৃত্যগুরু বিপিন সিংহের অবদানের কথা তিনি তুলে ধরেন।

বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষার উপর এক ঘন্টার অধিবেশন শেষে উপস্হিত দর্শক ও ভাষাবিদদের নানান প্রশ্নের জবাব দেন উত্তম সিংহ। উপস্হিত প্রতিক্রিয়ায় লেখক ভাষাবিদ ড্যানিয়াল কাফম্যান বলেন, প্রাথমিক পর্যবেক্ষনে বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরি ভাষাটিকে তিব্বত-বর্মী ও ভারতীয়-আর্য ভাষার সেতুবন্ধন বলে দৃশ্যমান হয়। ভাষাটি বিশ্বের অন্যতম বৈশিষ্টপুর্ণ ভাষা হিসাবে বিবেচিত হতে পারে উল্লেখ করে তিনি ভাষাটি সংরক্ষনের উপর গুরুত্ব দেন। তিনি জানান ভাষাটি এনডেঞ্জারড ল্যাঙ্গুয়েজ এলায়েন্স (ELA) এর ডকুমেন্টেশন প্রক্রিয়ায় অন্তর্ভূক্ত করা হয়েছে।

 

Unicode has become the best way to display many writing systems of the world in browsers. Hopefully our language is included in the Unicode. Bishnupriya Manipuri uses Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি) which is a variant of the Eastern Nagari script, also used for Bengali, Assamese and Maithili.

Now you are able to see Bishnupriya Manipuri unicode text in your mobile phone. You can view Bishnupriya Manipuri in your mobile like in Facebook or Blogs or Wikipedia.

Opera mini version 4.1 onwards supports Bishnupriya Manipuri unicode even if your mobile phone doesn’t support it. All you need is a java enabled handset. It does it via rendering bengali text in the server, rather than on phone, and then displaying.

To activate the option you just need to do the 2 steps –

Step – 1: Install Opera Mini

Visit the address mini.opera.com using your phone’s default Web browser and download and install Opera Mini

PC download link:  http://www.opera.com/mini/download/

opers_am

Step – 2: Configure Opera Mini

    1. Start Opera mini and type in “opera:config” in the address bar

opera

    1. Look at option Use bitmap fonts for complex scripts. Make it “yes”

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Now I believe you can view Bishnupriya Manipuri in your mobile.

You can visit Bishnupriya Manipuri wikipedia, Facebook and many other Unicode compliant Bishnupriya Manipuri sites.

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For example:

http://bpy.wikipedia.org

http://imarthar.blogspot.com

http://somewhereinblog.net/blog/sorahalblog

http://www.somewhereinblog.net/blog/kungothangblog/28899290

http://manipuriblog.blogspot.com/2008/11/blog-post_24.html

A language with written literature can rightly be called as independent language. Today Bishnupriya Manipuri is recognized as an independent language all over the world only because of gigantic efforts of our godly forefathers to safeguard our language from extinction through various literary activities. Otherwise, like the historical records of Manipur, the history of the language is a story of deprive and exile.

Curiously enough, there is no authority goes beyond 13th century except the rain-songs, proverbs and other folk literatures. Sir GA Grierson treats this language in his “Linguistic Survey of India”. He calls the language Mayang although he uses the term Bishnupuriya Manipuri. He also refers to the vocabulary of the language in Lieut-Col W McCullock’s “An Account of the Valley of Manipore and other languages” published as early as 1859. Considering the authorities and evidences it can be safely said that the Bishnupriya Manipuri language is originated in the land of Manipur long before the advent of Hinduism in this valley. As the speakers of Bishnupriya Manipuri (ইমার ঠার, as known to the speakers themselves) had their headquarters at Bishnupur, they were called Bishnupuriyas, i.e, the habitants of Bishnupur, and Bishnupriya is only contracted form of the term Bishnupuriya.

Linguistic study however, creates a little confusion about the origin and root of Bishnupriya Manipuri language. There are different stories from different sectors of people opposite to each other hence difficult to draw any synopsis, resulting in controversies. Dr K P Sinha, who has done considerable amount of researches on Bishnupriya Manipuri language, described four theories as believed by different section of people. Dr Sinha, in his work “The Bishnupriya Manipuris” (1975), also tried to analyze the theories critically with due logic and justification. On the other hand GK Gosh in his work “Tribal and their cultures in Manipur and Nagaland”(1982) putted forth six different theories on the origin of Bishnupriya Manipuri language. There are several other beliefs too. The diverse theories on the origin of Bishnupriya Manipuri are summarized as follows –

  • The Mahabharata Theory
  • Meitei-Origin theory
  • 18th Century theory
  • Bengali-Origin theory
  • Far-Eastern theory
  • Khala-Chai theory
  • Indo-Mongoloid theory

.

References:
1. Sir G. A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, Vol-3,19
2. Dr. K.P. Sinha, Bishnupriya Manipuri Language, Calcutta, 1981
3. G.K. Ghose, Tribals and Their Culture in Manipur and Nagaland,1982
4. Raj Mohan Nath, The Background of Assamese Culture, 2nd Edn, 1978
5. S S Tunga, Bengali & other Related Dialects of South Asia, New Delhi, 1995

To be continued….

T.S.Eliot wrote in his famous poetic work “Four Quartets” that time past and time present are both present in the time future. To make the way for the future we should explore our past. It is history, which is the gateway to enter into our past.

All the races or nations posses their own national history. History merely does not give an account of the rise and fall of kings or their kingdoms but it is a representation of the state of an entire civilization i.e the state of development of art and culture, literature, knowledge and science of a nation. The Bishnupriya Manipuris, being the part of a great Aryan civilization, were probably the first cultured race in possession of Manipur. Here I would rather impress upon you all to use the word ‘race’ than the word Nation. In the “History of Greece”, Dr. K.C.Choudhury said “The Greeks were rather a race then a nation since they lacked political unity which is regarded as the very foundation of national existence. The Greeks were divided into Ionians, Aeolians, Dorians and others smaller branches sprung from a single stock.” In the same manner as that of the Greeks we may say the Bishnupriya Manipuris consist of five dominant principalities under different clans like- Khumols, Moirangs, Angoms, Luwangs. Due to the ravages of time and historical misadventures the Bishnupriya Manipuri cronological history. If we go in search of the reasons behind this loss we find the following dominant factors:

Firstly, the Bishnupriya Manipuris like their Aryan ancestors lacked historical sense. Here I may recall the lines drawn by Arthur A Medonell in his “History of Sanskrit literature”: “History is one weak spot in Indian literature. It is in fact non-existent. The total lack of historical sense is so characteristic that the shadow of this defect, suffering as it does from an entire absence of exact chronology….”. The Bishnupriya Manipuris, like their ancestors, believed mostly on oral traditions.

Second, but the most dominant factor was the damage of historical relics, old records and other relevant information by the Meitei king Pamheiba or Garib Niwaj during the seventeenth century A.D.

Thirdly the three consecutive Burmese aggression to Manipur which have forced the Bishnupriya Manipuris to leave their ancestral home and settle down in different scattered locations in present Myanmar, Assam, Tripura and Bangladesh. During those dark days while people were struggling hard to save their own lives have forgotten to preserve the old records.

However, from such a virtual non-existence of any historical records some western and non-Bishnupriya Manipuri Indian writers (including historians from Manipur) have drawn brief sketches on the historical backgrounds of the Bishnupriya Manipuris. From their reference one can be sure that there were Bishnupriya Manipuris on the soil of Manipur. Among the western writers we may name Captain Pemberton, r.Brown, E.T.Dalton, T.C.Hudson, E.Gait, B.C.Allen, and Major Mc Cullock etc. But some of them quoted distorted facts under the influence of Meitei kings and intellectuals. Even the great master compiler of Linguistic survey of India, Sir G.A.Grierson could not free himself completely from referring to such distorted facts.

However, we express our heartfelt gratitude to him because with his justified statements we have won our war against the menace of a sested interests to cut out our existence from our historical roots. We pay our deep respect too to Late R.M.Nath who has highlighted certain facts on the history of the Bishnupriya Manipuris in his famous work “Background of Assamese Culture”.

History is a Science based on facts and reason, leading from hypothesis to thesis (from hypothetical knowledge to logical conclusion). Who will write history of this race? I may answer this question in the spirit of Bankim Chandra Chattapadhyaya that “It is I; It is you”. All of the Bishnupriya Manipuris should write their own history because in its truest sense only the Bishnupriya Manipuris can approach sincerely on the indepth and systematic study in this field.

Here we also remember with deep respect the works done by Late Mahendra Kumar Sinha. He is the pioneer in Bishnupriya Manipuri historical research. His work is compiled into three volumes of “Manipurer Prachin Itihas”, the first of which has been published earlier. We are awaiting eagerly the publication of the remaining volumes. Late Sena Singha contributed a lot with his work “Manipurer Itibritta”. But some of his findings are not free from controversy. We pay our deep respect to him too.Other scholars also contributed a lot in this field. They are Late Krishna Kumar Singha, Haridas Singha and other respected persons. There are other interested persons who have sincerely devoted themselves to the study of history. Most of their works are yet to be published. We are certain that one cannot be totally agree to all the findings by the earlier scholars as mentioned above. Moreover with the passage of time more informations are coming into light, which bring new spheres of speculations.

Contributed By – Dils Lakshmindra Sinha

* Excerpts from the Welcome address by the convener in the seminar on the History of the Bishnupriya Manipuris

Physically, a fine race, the Manipuris is devoted to sports and games. There are number of traditional games that have their origin back in Manipur. One of the most popular indoor game among them is Kang. The game, Kang is known to the Bishnupriya Manipuris as Gilla (though Gilla is developed as a variant of Kang) and Kanga-Sanaba to the Meiteis. It is an indigenous Manipuri game played on the day between Manipuri New Year’s Day (Cheiraoba/Bishu) and the Ratha Jatra (Kang) festival.

A round object called Kang which is the seed of a creeper (Uri) is used in this game. It is about one and a half inch in diameter and ¾ of an inch in thickness. The game is played among two teams each of seven either males of females usually mixed up. A player has to Shoot a point from a fixed position. If the parties hit the target twice with the Kang then, Lamtha is adopted. Lamtha is played by propelling the disk on its flat side along the surface of the ground by the force of middle finger of the right hand acting the finger of the left.. At the end of half a duration of the play, interchange of the directions takes place. Of the two teams, the one who can hit the target for a greater number by two Chekpheis (shooting from a standing position) and one Lamtha is the winner.

There are tales, both legendary and mythological, that claim that Kang was played by gods and goddesses, soon after the earth was created. According to some sources Kang is played by the deity “Panthoibi”. It is believed that the seven players on either side represent the seven days of the week and the Chekphei and Lamtha kangkhul are believed to 15 in number on one side and both sides represent 30 days, making a complete month. There are evidences that the Manipuris began to play this game well before the arrival of Vaishnavism in Manipur. Earlier, the dignitaries of the Palace including the Maharani and the Maharaja also participated on social functions. In the old days Kang was played during summer starting from Cheiraoba/Bishu to Kang.

Presently, the game is played in several tournaments through out the year. Rules and regulation have been modified to suit the changing needs of the game. In Bangladesh a Kang Federation is formed to organize the game annually. Besides there are few individual attempts to preserve the cultural tradition of Manipur in some Bishnupriya Manipuri localities like Tilakpur, Ghoramara etc.

To download the special issue of Pouri Patrika on Bishnupriya Manipuri Kang celebration and the Game of Kang click here.

To many of us, the name Manipuri stands for colorful hand-woven saris and shawls. To other it is synonymous with classical dance. But the exotic images tell only part of the story, Beyond the colorful facade, the history of the Manipuri people is one of conflict, deprivation and exile. Following political intrigue in the eighteenth century, a large number of Manipuri fled their homes and took refuge in greater Sylhet, as well as the Indian states of Assam and Tripura. These people had Indo-Aryan features and called themselves Bishnupriyas. Long before their exodus they had lost control of Manipur to the rival clan of Meiteis. In their adopted land their lives and limbs were safe; but their language and culture began to lose ground against those of the majorette. Meanwhile, the Meiteis in Manipur became vindictive and imposed a de facto ban on Bishnupriya language and custom. The Bishnupriya Manipuris were caught between a rock and a hard place. Today, young Manipuris are no longer sure of their cultural identity. Elders worry that their rich heritage may not be preserved for posterity… 2nd part of the Article written By Syed Zainul Akmal Al-Mahmood, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

barton is being placed

Barton! Come One, Come All!!

A man comes into the front yard. He has in his hand something that looks like a large green leaf. He place it carefully under the Tulsi plant in one corner. Swapan looks pleased. I looked puzzled, “Barton” he says.

Barton. I learn, is the formal invitation to a function. In case of Ras Lila it consists of piece of Pan (betel leaf) and a few piece of Supari (betel nut). These have to arranged in a certain way and place under the inevitable Tulsi tree. “Without this time-honored ritual, the invitation is incomplete”, says Swapan’s mother with a smile.

Rain Songs: the vanished memories

The Manipuris are craftsmen extraordinaire. It is difficult to find a Manipuri household without a loom. The weavers have traditionally been women. There are many skilled Blacksmiths and Goldsmiths among the Manipuri men. They are excellent farmers as well. This industriousness has seen them for centuries of turmoil.

Oh Sorelel! Singing and dancing is part and parcel of Manipuri life. From watching young children one feels that they have an instinctive sense of Rhymes and Rhythms. Their culture is a curious blend of Vaishnavism and orthodox belief. In between it is still possible to see glimpses of the ancient traditions that prevailed in the Pre-Hindu Manipuri society.

One of the last surviving original Bishnupriya Manipuri culture is the ancient Rain Song. Translated into English it would something like this – Oh Soralel, the king of Gods! / The land of Khumal become barren because of drought / Oh king of Gods, pray and send us rain! / Pahangpa (Pakhangba) was angry because Chamei was insulted… It is a long song with impressive rhythm and deep feeling. It was composed long before Hinduism took place in Manipur. Manipuri elders testify that there were many other important songs, but they have vanished from memory, never to return.

GK Ghosh said of the Bishnupriya Manipuris, “In Manipur their culture is being gulped by Meithei culture, in Cachar and Bangladesh it is by Bengali culture, while in Assam by Assamese culture (ref : Tribals and their culture in Manipur and Nagaland). The erosion is easy to see. Even since Santidas won over the population, the influence of Bangla has steadily been growing. The Manipuri alphabet has been replaced by Bengali letters. Traditional Manipuri names like ‘Thoibi’ and ‘Senatombi’ has given way to names such as ‘Suchitra’ and ‘Sunetra’. Many traditional costumes have been lost. Those Bishnupriya who remained in Manipur have lost their language, now they speak Meitei. Many experts believe this rich culture is headed for extinction.

Costume making a semi-religious job!

costume making

The Ras costumes to be handed out with a brief ceremony. It’s called Bar Silkorani. Are you interested?” I already have one foot inside a shoe, “Lets go, where does it happen? The temple?” Swapan shakes head, “At the costume maker’s house.

Costume making for the Ras is a semi-religious job. Traditionally, before every Ras, the costume maker unveils his work (with every bit as much pride as Legerfeld showing off his spring collection) and makes prediction about how the Ras will go. All the dancers came and pay homage to him before collecting their costumes.

The costume maker is spry, middle-aged man named Kangress Singha. His family has the business for three generations, he tells me. The costume itself is a gorgeous affair. Red, Green, Yellow –all the colors of rainbow in fact. And some besides. The costume has 10 different parts and known as ‘Polloi’.

The dancers step up one by one First up is Krishna. I surprise, he is a young boy not older than six or seven. “This must be a joke”, I whisper to Swapan. “ This child is too young to dance!”

No, he’s not.” Swapan whispers back. “You’ll see!

Next come Radha, a young girl of same age. Then, in single file, a bevy of teenaged girls who will be Radha’s companions, the Gopis. Subhasini is among them as earnest as the rest. Clearly this was a big occasion.

In the Ras Mandav

It is approaching midnight, the dancers are struggling with their costumes and make ups. Subhasini is being helped on with her jewelry by willing hands. She is a great dancer, pupil of a dance teacher who trained in Allahabad. But most of the dancers have no formal trainings.
They learn by watching their seniors”, says Jharna, “According to tradition each Ras is sponsored by a particular household. And a girl from the house must be the lead dancer. I’ve performed the lead, so has my younger sister. And Swapan was Krishna once.”

Swapan squirms in embarrassment, “ That was a long time ago, Everyone knows I cant dance!

Ras

At Last, the watching hour. The Ras start off at a quarter past midnight. The sequence of dramatic scenes shows Radha nad Krishna in the idyllic Vrindaban cavorting with the Gopis. The songs are part Bangla, part Manipuri and part Brajabuli. Sameer Singha, student of dramatic Art at Jahangirnagar University, sits by me and explains the lyrics. The young Krishna dances beautifully; it’s an amazing part of a child so young. Amazing performance, period.

the young krishna performed too well

The Ras Lila ends just as the first streaks of dawn appear in the sky. As I trudge back, mission accomplished, I can’t help the thread faced by the flamboyant people. They badly need a new dawn, a new beginning. Unless current trends are reserved, their exotic culture may become extinct in near future. Our cultural landscape will be poorer for it.


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